‘Param’ Among the Most Power Efficient Systems of the World

India’s supercomputer Param Yuva ll, developed by the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), has been ranked first in India, ninth in the Asia Pacific Region and 44th in the world among the most power efficient computer systems as per the Green 500 List announced at the Supercomputing Conference (SC 2013) in Denver, Colorado, in the US on January 1, 2014.

Green 500 Computer Systems

Supercomputers, in general, consume a lot of electrical power and produce much heat that necessitates elaborate cooling facilities to ensure proper operation.This adds to increase in the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of a supercomputer. TO draw focus towards development of energy efficient supercomputers, Green 500 rank computer systems in the world according to compute  performance per watt, thus providing a world ranking based on energy efficiency.

FAQs from RBI Order on Pre-2005 Notes

RBI Order on Pre-2005 Notes

In a move that is likely to hit currency hoarders and counterfeiters, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has decided to withdraw from circulation all currency notes issued prior to 2005.  From April 1, the public will be required to approach banks for exchanging these notes. Banks  will provide exchange facility for these notes.

Some of the frequently asked questions about the order are given below:

Q: Why are the notes being recalled?
A: Since 2005, the government has printed notes with much better security features. The circulation of the old notes with fewer safety features was defeating the purpose of the new notes. Most fake notes being pumped in were copies of pre-2005 notes.

Q: Will all notes before 2005 stop being money after April 1?
A: No. The notes will remain legal tender and will be valid for all monetary transactions till RBI or the government decides otherwise and announces it.

Q: Why rush to change the notes?
A: There is no rush, but as responsible citizens it’s your duty to change the pre-2005 notes. The step is being taken to weed out fake notes from the system, and also curtail the flow of black money. Moreover, some day the RBI may declassify these notes as legal tender.

Q: Where are these pre-2005 notes?
A: There could be some if you have cash saved up for years or if you have received a large cash
component as part of any deal. You could be getting them in your daily transactions too.
Q: How can the notes be changed?
A: You can walk into any bank branch and change these notes over the counter. Soon, RBI will come out with a detailed procedure that banks have to follow.

Q: Is there a limit on the number of old notes that can be exchanged?
A: The RBI has not set any limits. The usual ones in dealing with cash- like the PAN for any cash transaction of above Rs 50,000- will apply. Any transaction above Rs 10 lakh is reported to the Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act. If you have 20-30 notes or even more, they can be changed over the counter.

Q: How long can we exchange the old notes?
A: The drive starts from April 1. But, you can exchange these notes even now. Deposit these notes into your account at bank branches or through the ATM and they will be automatically replaced.

Q: Are any documents needed for exchanging the notes? A: If you are a customer of the bank you have approached, you only need to identify yourself to exchange the notes. Since July 1, you need to provide proof of identity and residence if you are not an account holder of the bank you have approached and want to exchange more than 10 notes of Rs 500 or Rs 1000 denomination.

The RBI will soon come out with a detailed procedure.

Q: What if any of the notes you want to exchange turns out to be fake?
A: Banks will follow RBI guidelines. It says if there are five or more fake notes in one
transaction, an FIR has to be lodged.

Q: Is there any need to worry or panic?
A: If you are a law-abiding citizen, you need not worry. Just exchange whatever few old notes you may have and make sure you do not get any during your transactions. Those who deal in large cash transactions, particularly in properties, and have major cash stashes may face some difficulty.

Q: Why did RBI suddenly decide on removing the old notes?
A: This is not a sudden move. For the last several years, whenever a pre-2005 note came to a bank, it was sent to the RBI for disposal. This is the central bank’s first step to suck out the notes from the general public.

Q: How to identify pre-2005 notes?
A: All notes printed since 2005 have the year of printing in the middle of the bottom strip on the reverse side (the side that doesn’t have the Gandhi ji pic).

Flight-testing of Indian cryogenic engine/GSLV D5

ISRO :GSLV D5 launch successful

GSLV D5 ISROISRO said, ‘India’s tryst with Cryogenic propulsion bears fruit. Flight-testing of Indian cryogenic engine/GSLV D5 is successful’.

The GSLV-D5′s first mission attempt with indigenous cryogenic engine was aborted at the eleventh hour on August 19 last year due to a fuel leak in its second stage. Fuel tank made of aluminium alloy called Afnor 7020 tended to develop crack over a period of time and the leak was blamed on it.

The GSLV is designed to inject its passenger spacecraft into the intended Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit with a combination of solid, earth-storable liquid and cryogenic propellants in its first, second and third stages, respectively.

The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Bill : A Brief Draft

The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Bill

The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Bill was recently passed in Parliament. The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Bill, 2011 provides for the establishment of a body of Lokpal for the Union and Lokayukta for States to inquire into allegations of corruption against certain public functionaries. Lokpal will consist of a chairperson and a maximum of eight members, of which 50 percent shall be judicial members. The bill seeks to establish the institution of Lokpal at the Centre and Lokayukta at the level of States and to provide a uniform vigilance and anti-corruption road map at the Centre and in the States. Continue reading “The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Bill : A Brief Draft” »

Iran unveiled New Biggest Drone Fotros with 2000 Km Range

Iran unveiled New Biggest Drone Fotros with 2000 Km RangeIran on 18 November 2013 unveiled a biggest missileequipped drone with a range of 2000 km, which would enable it to cover much of the Middle East, including Israel.

The drone named Fotros has an operational range of 2000 kilometres and can fly at an altitude of 25000 feet, with a flight time of 16 to 30 hours.

The drone could carry out reconnaissance missions or launch air-to-surface missile strikes.

In September 2013, Iran announced the mass production of the Shahed 129 drone, which it said has a range of 1700 kilometres, is capable of carrying eight missiles and can fly for 24 hours.

In the same month, Iran unveiled a reconnaissance drone named Yasseer, which was said to be capable of flying for eight hours with a range of 200 kilometres and at an altitude of 4500 meters.

Yasseer was based on the US ScanEagle drone, a model of which Tehran claimed to have captured in December 2012 and reproduced since then. The Iranian army also recently claimed that it was producing a series of drones called Rad-85.